- 1. Start with initial orientation to task, environment,
materials, appropriate dress and expectations: outcomes.
- 2. Design training sessions for success. Prior to beginning
a work session discuss what will be done and what the reinforcement
will be. The reinforcement needs to be tangible and accessible.
- 3. Identify expected behaviors (vocational and
social) in order to maximize efficient use of time allotted to do task.
This should be reviewed frequently. This should be reinforced on the
job whenever possible. (see work behavior rating
- 4. Be sure to set goals that the student will be able to reach
(accessible) and the reinforcement is immediate ( tangible) and it's
something that motivates the student
- 5. Once behavioral obstacles are identified, develop behavior
plan to insure consistency amongst staff in addressing these behaviors.
- 6. Use verbal agreements or contracts when setting
up what the task and reinforcement will be.
- Use verbal and visual reminders during the task if the student is
getting distracted, tired or losing motivation to complete the work
agreement. For example: After working for one hour we will take
a coffee break, take a walk to get the mail, rest, fill out your time
sheet so you get paid for the work done.
- 7. Prior to start of each task, based on task analysis, demonstrate
appropriate operation/execution of task in slow graduated steps.
(Well thought out) During training take nothing for granted no matter
how simple the task might appear. (Backward chaining).
- 8. Teach one task at a time. Backward
chaining: Complete a task sequence with the student and have them
be responsible for the last piece in the task. During this time the
staff person is doing the other parts of the task and explaining the
task " getting the whole picture" Once the student has mastered a step,
add the next step, and so on until the student is doing all steps of
- 9. Through observation make note of any physical, cognitive
and social deficits and be ready to adapt the job and/or develop compensatory
- 10. Use written or picture task cards to help with
memory and sequencing of the task procedure. Possibly, have a check
off sheet that the student can use to check off each step as it has
been completed. This gives the student a visual guide to see their progress
and how close they are to completing the task ( helps deal with fatigue).
- 11. Develop weekly schedules to be distributed to and
discuss with students.
- 12. Ratio of one teacher/trainer to two students (1:1 even
- 13. Be extremely sensitive to safety issues. (i.e..
allergies, medications, physical sensitivities and limitations etc.
- 14. Always be certain that necessary materials and equipment
are: 1.) available at the beginning of the work period, and 2.) that
students, with assistance when necessary, put all materials back in
appropriate storage area.
- 15. Use common sense when assigning job sites.
- 16. As trainers it is essential that you are well organized
and fully understand expected outcomes.
- 17. Try and treat students as workers not children.
- 18. Data collection is very important.
- 19. Try not to intervene immediately, using common sense.
Allow student some time to either work out the problem or ask for assistance.
- 20. Comments made daily should be concise and relative to
weaker areas. Be specific, NOT general. From these comments goals
and objectives with emerge and subsequently tightening up you training
program. Again, DO NOT assign too many tasks.
- 21. Be consistent with developing organizational and
teaching strategies, students learning will be enhanced..
- 22. When teaching a task, keep it specific, simple, demonstrate,
monitor and then intervene.
- 23. Practice with and repetition of activities, as well as
feedback on performance, will strengthen the student's confidence to
do the job.
- 24. Most importantly focus a lot on behavior in a new
environment coupled with new expectations- you might discover different
aspects/behaviors relative to students.
- 25. Focus primarily, where necessary, on behavior.
Vocational skills will emerge as behaviors are controlled.
- 26. Each day should start with review of training.
If appropriate, follow up discussion is very helpful.
- 27. When you are instructing always ask questions particularly
during orientation to the job.
- 28. Very Important: As you observe students working
try and determine need for use of OT, PT, speech , etc.